Papers of special note have been highlighted as either of interest (•) or of considerable interest (••) to readers.
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Lazarou J, Pomeranz BH, Corey PN: Incidence of adverse drug reactions in hospitalized patients: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. JAMA 279, 1200–1205 (1998). •• Meta-analysis of 39 prospective studies from US hospitals selected to estimate the incidence of serious and fatal adverse drug reactions.
Pirmohamed M, James S, Meakin S et al.: Adverse drug reactions as cause of admission to hospital: prospective analysis of 18 820 patients. BMJ 329, 15–19 (2004). •• Prospective observational study of prevalence of all admissions to hospital due to adverse drug reactions in two large general hospitals in the UK.
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Mallal S, Nolan D, Witt C et al.: Association between presence of HLA-B*5701, HLA-DR7, and HLA-DQ3 and hypersensitivity to HIV-1 reverse-transcriptase inhibitor abacavir. Lancet 359, 727–732 (2002). •• Original description of the association of abacavir hypersensitivity with HLA alleles.
Hetherington S, Hughes AR, Mosteller M et al.: Genetic variations in HLA-B region and hypersensitivity reactions to abacavir. Lancet 359, 1121–1122 (2002). •• Original description of the association of abacavir hypersensitivity with HLA alleles.
Hughes DA, Vilar FJ, Ward CC, Alfirevic A, Park BK, Pirmohamed M: Cost-effectiveness analysis of HLA B*5701 genotyping in preventing abacavir hypersensitivity. Pharmacogenetics 14, 335–342 (2004). • Analysis of pretreatment genetic testing showing cost–effectivness.
Chung WH, Hung SI, Hong HS et al.: Medical genetics: a marker for Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Nature 428, 486 (2004). •• Striking association of carbamazepine-induced Steven–Johnson syndrome and HLA alleles in Han Chinese.
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Alfirevic A, Jorgensen AL, Williamson PR, Chadwick DW, Park BK, Pirmohamed M: HLA-B locus in Caucasian patients with carbamazepine hypersensitivity. Pharmacogenomics 7, 813–818 (2006).
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Kindmark A, Jawaid A, Harbron CG et al.: Genome-wide pharmacogenetic investigation of a hepatic adverse event without clinical signs of immunopathology suggests an underlying immune pathogenesis. Pharmacogenomics J. (2007) (Epub ahead of print).
Alfirevic A, Mills T, Harrington P et al.: Serious carbamazepine-induced hypersensitivity reactions associated with the HSP70 gene cluster. Pharmacogenet. Genomics 16, 287–296 (2006).
Pirmohamed M, Lin K, Chadwick D, Park BK: TNFa promoter region gene polymorphisms in carbamazepine-hypersensitive patients. Neurology 56, 890–896 (2001).
Phillips EJ, Wong GA, Kaul R et al.: Clinical and immunogenetic correlates of abacavir hypersensitivity. AIDS 19, 979–981 (2005).
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Gottesman II, Gould TD: The endophenotype concept in psychiatry: etymology and strategic intentions. Am. J. Psychiatry 160, 636–645 (2003).
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van Heel DA, Franke L, Hunt KA et al.: A genome-wide association study for celiac disease identifies risk variants in the region harboring IL2 and IL21. Nat. Genet. 39, 827–829 (2007).
Emery LM, Babu S, Bugawan TL et al.: Newborn HLA-DR, DQ genotype screening: age- and ethnicity-specific Type 1 diabetes risk estimates. Pediatr. Diabetes 6, 136–144 (2005).
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Mushiroda T, Saito S, Tanaka Y et al.: A model of prediction system for adverse cardiovascular reactions by calcineurin inhibitors among patients with renal transplants using gene-based single-nucleotide polymorphisms. J. Hum. Genet. 50, 442–447 (2005).
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Roy JN, Barama A, Poirier C, Vinet B, Roger M: Cyp3A4, Cyp3A5, and MDR-1 genetic influences on tacrolimus pharmacokinetics in renal transplant recipients. Pharmacogenet. Genomics 16, 659–665 (2006).
Thervet E, Anglicheau D, King B et al.: Impact of cytochrome p450 3A5 genetic polymorphism on tacrolimus doses and concentration-to-dose ratio in renal transplant recipients. Transplantation 76, 1233–1235 (2003).
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Sax PE, Gallant JE, Klotman PE: Renal safety of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. AIDS Read. 17, 90–92, 99–104, C3 (2007).
Izzedine H, Hulot JS, Villard E et al.: Association between ABCC2 gene haplotypes and tenofovir-induced proximal tubulopathy. J. Infect. Dis. 194, 1481–1491 (2006).
Kirchheiner J, Nickchen K, Bauer M et al.: Pharmacogenetics of antidepressants and antipsychotics: the contribution of allelic variations to the phenotype of drug response. Mol. Psychiatry 9, 442–473 (2004).
Dubinsky MC, Reyes E, Ofman J, Chiou CF, Wade S, Sandborn WJ: A cost–effectiveness analysis of alternative disease management strategies in patients with Crohn's disease treated with azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 100, 2239–2247 (2005).
Sanderson J, Ansari A, Marinaki T, Duley J: Thiopurine methyltransferase: should it be measured before commencing thiopurine drug therapy? Ann. Clin. Biochem. 41, 294–302 (2004).
van Aken J, Schmedders M, Feuerstein G, Kollek R: Prospects and limits of pharmacogenetics: the thiopurine methyl transferase (TPMT) experience. Am. J. Pharmacogenomics 3, 149–155 (2003).
Marra CA, Esdaile JM, Anis AH: Practical pharmacogenetics: the cost effectiveness of screening for thiopurine S-methyltransferase polymorphisms in patients with rheumatological conditions treated with azathioprine. J. Rheumatol. 29, 2507–2512 (2002).
Milek M, Murn J, Jaksic Z, Lukac Bajalo J, Jazbec J, Mlinaric Rascan I: Thiopurine S-methyltransferase pharmacogenetics: genotype to phenotype correlation in the Slovenian population. Pharmacology 77, 105–114 (2006).
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Martin AM, Krueger R, Almeida CA, Nolan D, Phillips E, Mallal S: A sensitive and rapid alternative to HLA typing as a genetic screening test for abacavir hypersensitivity syndrome. Pharmacogenet. Genomics 16, 353–357 (2006).
Phillips EJ: Genetic screening to prevent abacavir hypersensitivity reaction: are we there yet? Clin. Infect. Dis. 43, 103–105 (2006).
Martin A, Nolan D, Almeida CA, Rauch A, Mallal S: Predicting and diagnosing abacavir and nevirapine drug hypersensitivity: from bedside to bench and back again. Pharmacogenomics 7, 15–23 (2006).
Rauch A, Nolan D, Martin A, McKinnon E, Almeida C, Mallal S: Prospective genetic screening decreases the incidence of abacavir hypersensitivity reactions in the Western Australian HIV cohort study. Clin. Infect. Dis. 43, 99–102 (2006).
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Mason PJ, Bautista JM, Gilsanz F: G6PD deficiency: the genotype–phenotype association. Blood Rev. 21, 267–283 (2007).
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Koopmans J, Hiraki S, Ross LF: Attitudes and beliefs of pediatricians and genetic counselors regarding testing and screening for CF and G6PD: implications for policy. Am. J. Med. Genet. A 140, 2305–2311 (2006).
Senter PD, Beam KS, Mixan B, Wahl AF: Identification and activities of human carboxylesterases for the activation of CPT-11, a clinically approved anticancer drug. Bioconjug Chem 12, 1074–80 (2001).
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Han JY, Lim HS, Shin ES et al.: Comprehensive analysis of UGT1A polymorphisms predictive for pharmacokinetics and treatment outcome in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer treated with irinotecan and cisplatin. J. Clin. Oncol. 24, 2237–2244 (2006).
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Wadelius M, Pirmohamed M: Pharmacogenetics of warfarin: current status and future challenges. Pharmacogenomics J. 7, 99–111 (2007). • Comprehensive review of the current status of warfarin pharmacogenetics. A total of 30 genes may be involved in the biotransformation and mode of action of warfarin, which are discussed in this review.
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Koren G, Cairns J, Chitayat D, Gaedigk A, Leeder SJ: Pharmacogenetics of morphine poisoning in a breastfed neonate of a codeine-prescribed mother. Lancet 368, 704 (2006). •• Important example where pharmacogenetic research may help to change clinical practice.
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